Starbucks Coffee has partnered with Menicon in Japan to pioneer fermentation technology that converts coffee grounds into cow feed. Menicon researchers experimenting with fermentation technologies found a technique that worked on coffee compost. Menicon, in a joint venture with the Veterinary Medicine Department of Azabu University, then used this technology to develop a cattle feed. Starbucks refrigerated trucks, that were fitted with a special cold-storage space, then shipped used beans from Tokyo stores to the processing plant in the Tokyo suburbs. Some of the milk in Starbucks stores in Japan now comes from coffee-fed cows. Menicon and Starbucks, along with Sanyu Plant Service, have jointly applied for a patent on the process used to produce this lactic-acid-fermented feed.